||Objective: Smoking is the single greatest cause of preventable disease and premature death. It is a major risk
factor for various gastrointestinal diseases. Patient characteristics of smokers and nonsmokers may be different.
Methods: Prospectively analyzed the patients on whom gastrointestinal endoscopy had been performed during
the period of November, 2005 to March, 2006 in Siriraj Hospital. The patients’ characteristics, education,
occupation, income, hobby, rest, exercise, diagnosis, preanesthetic problems and endoscopic procedures were
assessed. In smokers, variety of smoking used and smoke habit was assessed.
Results: Three hundred and fifteen patients were 125 smokers (M 122, F 3) and 190 nonsmokers (M 90, F
100). Most smokers had ASA class II, III (74.4%). Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and diabetes mellitus in
smoker patients were higher significant than the nonsmokers. The majority of nonsmokers had ASA class I, II
(86.9%), dyspepsia (18.4%), gastroesophageal reflux disease (9.5%), CA colon (9.5%) and hypertension
hematologic disease liver disease were the most common preanesthetic problems. The cultivator was the most
significant occupation in smokers. Age started smoking (10-62), duration of smoke (2-70), cigarettes per day (1-
40) and Krongthip, Saifon and tobacco were the most common cigarettes. The tobacco dependence was mainly
due to craving a smoke, tension, social and being used to.
Conclusion: Patient characteristics of smokers and nonsmokers are significantly different. Smoking is a risk
factor for various gastrointestinal diseases such as upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and liver disease.