|| within and between groups, whereas it increased in CT group. First tension (R1) during SLR significantly increased within both groups, while second tension (R2) increased in CT group. There was no significant difference of HRV and SAA in LDT or CT groups.
In the main study, research assessor and all participants were blinded. Thirty-six participants were randomized to CT group receiving cold pack for 45 minutes and home-based exercise program, while EXP group received LDT for 45 minutes and home-based exercise program. The immediate effect showed that SAA and girth decreased in EXP and BP_dia decreased in CT group. For long-term effects, SAA, BP, VAS, Thai KOOS and 6MWT improved after 1 week, while in the control group, BP and Thai KOOS improved after 1 week. In conclusion, LDT can be provided for individuals with early stage of knee OA as LDT can help improve pain, swelling, and physical function. This research recommends to apply LDT on knee OA and may be considered to provide for other musculoskeletal conditions.